Visuo-Analogue Test for Anosognosia for Motor Impairment


Sergio Della Sala a, Gianna Cocchini b,

Nicoletta Beschin a,c, Annette Cameron d


aHuman Cognitive Neuroscience, Psychology, University of Edinburgh, UK

bPsychology Department, Goldsmiths’ College University of London, UK

cRehabilitation Department, Gallarate Hospital, Italy

dAberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen, UK




The VATAm is a questionnaire where patients are asked to rate their motor abilities. Each question is illustrated by a simple drawing, and a visual-analogue 4-point scale is used to rate motor difficulties, where 0 indicates “no difficulty in carrying out the task” and 3 indicates “major difficulties or impossibility in carrying out the task”. Patients can indicate their rating, by means a verbal response (e.g. rating “3” or “Problem”) or by means of motor response (i.e. by pointing on the rating scale).

The test consists of 12 questions testing the patients’ ability to perform tasks that require the use of both hands (8 questions) or both feet (4 questions) i.e. bilateral tasks”, such as clapping or walking. Four “check questions”, which elicit obvious answers, are used to verify the patient’s compliance, comprehension of the questions and possible preservations. Check questions are not included in the final score, however participants who do not provide the expected answer to all check questions should be excluded.

At least one carer is also asked to rate the patient’s motor difficulties using the same questionnaire. The patient’s self-evaluation score is then subtracted from that of the carer. A discrepancy higher than 6.26 indicates evidence of unawareness; a discrepancy higher than 12.1 indicates evidence of “moderate anosognosia” and a value exceeding 24.1 indicates “severe anosognosia”.



          For further information see:



          Della Sala S., Cocchini G., Beschin N., Cameron A. “VATAm: A new method to assess anosognosia for upper and lower limbs in left-and right brain damaged patients” The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 2009, 11: 1-22.


          Cocchini G., Beschin N., Della Sala S., Cameron A., Foutopolou A. “Anosognosia following left-brain damage” Neuropsychology, 2009, 23(2): 223-230.



Download this page.

Download VATAm material.

Download VATAm score sheet.