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TWICKENHAM
Description and History from 1868 Gazetteer

TWICKENHAM, a parish and suburb of the metropolis in the S.W. postal district, hundred of Isleworth, county Middlesex, 1 mile W. of Richmond, 3 miles S.W. of Brentford, and 9 S.W. of St. Paul's Cathedral.

It is a junction station on the Windsor section of the London and South-Western railway, where the Thames Valley branches off. Its ancient name was Twittanham, Twicknam, and Twit'nam, referring to its situation between two streams or brooks that flow into the Thames at either end of the village, which occupies a site on the road from London, through Isleworth to Hampton Court. It has long been considered one of the most beautiful spots in the vicinity of the metropolis, with its romantic scenery, enlivened by the windings of the Thames and embellished with seats and villas. In the middle of the river, nearly opposite the village, is the island of eight acres, called Twickenham Ait, with the Eel-pie House, rebuilt in 1830, and now containing an assembly-room 50 feet by 15, much resorted to by anglers and pleasure parties. On the shore overlooking the island is Strawberry Hill, once the residence of Sir Horace Walpole; and a little further on, at the southern extremity of the village, is Pope's villa and grotto, recently divided into several villa residences. The parish includes the hamlet of Whitton, where are Whitton Park, formerly the seat of the Duke of Argyle the naturalist, now of Miss Gostling; and Kneller Hall, built by Sir Godfrey Kneller, but recently enlarged and used by Government, first as a training school for workhouse schoolmasters, and now under the patronage of H.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge as a seminary for regimental bandmasters. The population in 1861 was 8,077, of which 3,985 are in the ecclesiastical district of the Holy Trinity. The parish abounds in market gardens, orchards, and fertile meadows. In the vicinity are oil and gunpowder mills. Many buildings of late years have been erected near Richmond-bridge, and it is expected that a new chapel-of-ease will be erected in Cambridge Park. The City of London Carpenters' almshouses is a modern structure in ten compartments. The living is a vicarage* in the diocese of London, value 717, in the patronage of the Dean and Canons of Windsor. The church, dedicated to St. Mary, was rebuilt in 1715, with a tower of more ancient date. There are monuments of many eminent persons, including a tablet to Pope, erected at the expense of Bishop Warburton, and another to Mrs. Clive, the actress. In addition to the parish church are the district churches of Holy Trinity at Twickenham Green, and St. Philip and St. James at Whitton, the livings of which are perpetual curacies There is also a proprietary chapel belonging to the Rev. W. Webster, situated in Montpelier-road. There are several parochial schools for boys and girls and infants throughout the parish. The Independents, Wesleyans, and Baptists have chapels. There is a literary and scientific institution, with library and reading-rooms. The principal seats are Fulwell Lodge, Orleans House, and Strawberry Hill. Fairs are held on Holy Thursday and the 9th and 10th August.

[Description(s) from "The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland" (1868)
Transcribed by Colin Hinson 2003]
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[Last updated on 9 Oct 2003 by David Hawgood. 2003]